US re-joins Paris Agreement to tackle climate crisis
Hours after being sworn in as US President on 20 January 2021, Joe Biden signed an executive order to re-join the Paris Agreement.
This marks the start of much broader efforts that Biden has promised during his election campaign to tackle the existential threat to climate change.
Biden has also pledged to review the Trump administration’s rollback of over 100 environmental rules and regulations, potentially reversing them to re-introduce stricter vehicle fuel efficiency standards and tougher rules on oil and gas companies and power plants.
In our view, Biden is likely to take a whole-of-government approach to fighting climate change – extending far beyond the Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of the Interior and Energy that traditionally regulate environmental pollution, to include other parts of the federal government such as the US Treasury, and the Departments of Agriculture and Transportation, and even into areas such as national security and foreign policy.
We expect Biden to weave climate policy and decarbonisation targets into key government initiatives to advance his climate agenda, instead of relying on broad climate-focused legislation and spending proposals that could face defeat in Congress, given the Democratic Party’s very slim control in the Senate.
Biden has already made it clear that climate policy will be at the heart of the government’s plans to rebuild the US economy as it recovers from the Covid-19 pandemic.
“We can put millions of Americans to work modernising water, transportation, and energy infrastructure to withstand the impacts of extreme weather,” he said on 19 December 2020.
“We see farmers making American agriculture first in the world to achieve net-zero emissions and gaining new sources of income in the process.”
The push to align federal government policy with climate targets is likely to receive broad support among the US public, based on recent surveys. Sixty percent of US adults now believe that global climate change is a major threat to the country’s well-being, compared to 44% in 2009, according to Pew Research Center survey results published in April 2020.
Much of this increase has come from Democrats and those who lean toward the Democratic Party.
A separate Pew report published in June 2020 showed that about two-thirds (65%) of Americans believe that the federal government is doing too little to reduce the effects of climate change.
A large majority of the US public also believe that the priority for the country’s energy supply should be developing alternative sources of energy such as wind and solar, rather than expanding the production of oil, coal and natural gas.
A majority (58%) say government regulations are needed to encourage reliance on renewable energy.
Biden’s key picks to support his climate agenda so far include:
- Former Environmental Protection Agency chief Gina McCarthy as the first ever National Climate Advisor to coordinate the Biden administration’s domestic climate agenda and interagency policy and lead the newly formed White House Office of Domestic Climate Policy.
- Former senator and Secretary of State John Kerry as Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, a new position on the National Security Council that reports directly to Biden, to address the climate crisis in US international diplomacy and national security affairs. Biden has pledged to work with other world leaders to fight climate change.
- Former Federal Reserve chair Janet Yellen asTreasury Secretary. Yellen is a strong advocate for a carbon tax to discourage the use of fossil fuels and spur the development of clean energy alternatives, calling it a“textbook solution” to climate change.
- Brian Deese, global head of sustainable investing at BlackRock and former climate advisor to President Obama, as director of the National Economic Council, Biden’s top economic adviser.
- Michael Regan, head of North Carolina’s environmental agency, as Environmental Protection Agency chief.
Expect new targets and milestones, and perhaps even a carbon tax
To support his pledge to deliver a carbon neutral US economy with net zero carbon emissions by 2050, Biden’s climate plan includes a promise to demand that Congress approve legislation to
- establish an enforcement mechanism for the US to achieve its 2050 net zero carbon goal that includes milestone targets by 2025
- make USD400 billion of investments in clean energy and climate research and innovation over the next four years; and
- incentivise the rapid deployment of clean energy innovations across the economy.
Although the plan does not explicitly mention a carbon tax, it states that the enforcement mechanism would be based on the principles that “polluters must bear the full cost of the carbon pollution they are emitting and that our economy must achieve ambitious reductions in emissions economy-wide instead of having just a few sectors carry the burden of change.”
Incoming Treasury Secretary Yellen is a co-founder of the bipartisan Climate Leadership Council comprising business leaders and influential economists that proposed the introduction of a carbon tax in the Bipartisan Climate Roadmap published in October 2020.
Limits on Biden’s green ambitions
While the Democrats’ winning control of the Senate in January’s run-off elections in Georgia is unambiguously positive for the Biden administration’s overall climate ambitions, we highlight three key factors that are likely to restrict the government’s ability to achieve its climate goals quickly:
- The ongoing spread of Covid-19 will draw attention and resources away from other priorities in the early days of Biden’s presidency.
- The Democrats’ slim control of the Senate(split 50-50, with Vice-President Kamala Harris as tie-breaker) means that sweeping legislation such as a carbon tax would struggle to pass in the face of opposition by Republicans or dissenting Democrats.
- Most bills need 60 votes to pass in the 100-seat chamber.
- The Supreme Court, with its 6-3 conservative majority, would likely limit the extent that Biden is able to use his executive powers as President to implement climate policy.
What can be done regardless?
Even if the more ambitious parts of Biden’s climate agenda – such as USD2 trillion in climate-focused spending that he proposed in his election campaign – are opposed by lawmakers, the government can use its vast procurement power as a policy lever to encourage the adoption of clean technologies.
“The federal government owns and maintains an enormous fleet of vehicles. And we’re going to harness the purchasing power of our federal government to make sure we are buying clean, electric vehicles that are made and sourced by union workers right here in America,” Biden said on 19 December 2020.
Moreover, state- and city-level authorities across the US have significant powers to determine policy and strategy for their local economies and are well positioned to continue promoting climate initiatives locally even in the absence of new nationwide legislation, especially with political support, leadership and a clear blueprint for climate action from the Biden administration.
As an example, California, the state with the largest economy in the US, had in 2018 already pledged to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045, including a target for 100% of the state’s electricity to be produced by renewable energy and zero-carbon resources by 2045.
Several other states, including New York, Michigan, Nevada and Hawaii have also announced plans to slash net carbon emissions to zero or near zero by 2050.
Many US cities such as New York City, San Francisco, Seattle and Washington, DC have also pledged to turn carbon neutral, together with international counterparts that are part of the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance.
We expect these localised climate initiatives in various parts of the US – including the roll-out of low-carbon power, greener buildings and cleaner transport – to gather further momentum, adding greater impetus to the nationwide climate agenda.
Greater international cooperation on climate action likely
In the coming months, we expect the US to make a significant push to regain a leadership role in the global fight against climate change.
Other major economies including China and the European Union would welcome greater cooperation with the US on climate action to meet the Paris Agreement goals.
Traditional US allies in Europe are likely to be eager to forge new partnerships with the US to advance the global climate agenda, and we expect to see climate-related political momentum to gather new strength this year, ahead of the UN Climate Change Conference or COP26 meeting in November 2021.
“I warmly welcome President Biden’s steps to re-enter the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and join the growing coalition of governments, cities, states, businesses and people taking ambitious action to confront the climate crisis,” United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres said.
The re-entry of the US into the Paris Agreement means that more than two-thirds of the world economy – including China, the European Union, United Kingdom, Japan and South Korea – have now joined the fight against climate change with ambitious commitments to carbon neutrality by around mid-century.
Overall, we expect to see significant advances in global climate action and the broader environmental, social and governance agenda this year.
More intense competition in clean technologies to drive innovation and growth
At the same time, we expect to see more intense US-China competition to take the lead in clean technologies.
China’s bruising experience with the US during the Trump administration has accelerated its pursuit of self-reliance in key economic sectors, and we expect these efforts to continue even if bilateral relations improve significantly under Biden’s presidency.
China’s heavy investments to develop and expand the use of clean technologies is likely to pressure the US to step up its own investments. Indeed, Biden’s campaign platform makes explicit reference to this competition: “In 2017, China invested USD3 in renewable energy for every USD1 in America, giving China an edge on the technologies of tomorrow that will generate well-paying jobs.”
His campaign promised to “put the US back in the driver’s seat” in clean energy research, investment, commercialisation, manufacturing, and exports by 2030.
Overall, we expect China-US competition to be a key driver of innovation and growth in clean technologies for years to come.
Given the all-encompassing nature of decarbonisation efforts worldwide and the fast-evolving but uneven rollout of supporting legislation and regulations across the world, we continue to believe that a strategy of adding diversified exposure to a wide range of potential beneficiaries of the global transition to a carbon-neutral economy is appropriate.Disclaimer applicable to recommendation
This document is prepared for clients of Bank of Singapore Limited (the “Bank”) only. Information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable but the Bank or its affiliates do not warrant its completeness or accuracy except with respect to any disclosures relative to the Bank and/or its affiliates, and it should not be relied on as such. The information, opinions, estimates and forecasts contained herein are as of the date of this document and are subject to change without notice. We seek to update our research as appropriate, but various regulations may prevent us from doing so. Other than certain reports published on a periodic basis, the large majority of reports are published at irregular intervals as appropriate in the analyst's judgment.
Sales, trading and professional advisory personnel from the Bank may provide oral or written market commentary or trading strategies to our clients and discretionary portfolio management desks may reflect opinions that are contrary to the opinions expressed in this research. Our asset management desks may make investment decisions that are inconsistent with the recommendations or views expressed in this research.
This communication may provide an analysis of a specific security taken in isolation. It does not take into account any individual’s portfolio, investment objectives, risk tolerance, portfolio diversification or particular needs and are not intended as recommendations of particular securities, financial instruments or strategies to particular clients. The recipient of this communication must make its own independent decisions regarding whether this communication and any securities or financial instruments mentioned herein, are appropriate in the light of its existing portfolio holdings and/or investment needs.
If a specific product is mentioned above, the information in this communication cannot disclose everything about the nature and risks of such product. This is not an exhaustive list of the risks involved, nor should it be regarded as offering advice on the suitability of such product for you. In addition to considering your own circumstances and needs, please read carefully and make sure you understand the relevant product's objectives, risks, charges and expenses, as well as the contents of the prospectus, term sheet or such equivalent documentation before you make any investment. Please also read and make sure you understand all Risk Disclosures, Selling Restrictions and Disclaimers.
(1) Very Low Downside Risk, (2) Low Downside Risk, (3) Moderate Downside Risk, (4) High Downside Risk, (5) Very High Downside Risk
The description of risks in this document does not purport to be an exhaustive list of the risk factors associated with investment in the financial products mentioned in this document. Before making any investment, the reader should consider all risks carefully and consult an independent financial adviser as necessary before dealing with any financial products mentioned in this document.
This document is prepared by Bank of Singapore Limited (Co Reg. No.: 197700866R) (the “Bank”) for information purposes only and is not, by itself, intended for anyone other than the recipient. It may contain information proprietary to the Bank which may not be reproduced or redistributed in whole or in part without the Bank’s prior consent. This document is not, by itself, an offer or a solicitation to deal in any of the investment products referred to herein or to enter into any legal relations, nor an advice nor a recommendation with respect to such investment products. It is intended for general circulation and does not have regard to the specific investment objectives, investment experience, financial situation and the particular needs of any recipient or customer. Customers should exercise caution in relation to any potential investment. Customers should independently evaluate each investment product and consider the suitability of such investment product, taking into account customer’s own specific investment objectives, investment experience, financial situation and/or particular needs. Customers will need to decide on their own as to whether or not the contents of this document are suitable for them. If a customer is in doubt about the contents of this document and/or the suitability of any investment products mentioned in this document for the customer, the customer should obtain independent financial, legal and/or tax advice from the customer's professional advisers as necessary, before proceeding to make any investments or commitment to purchase any investment product.
The Bank, its Affiliates (as defined below) and their respective employees are not in the business of providing, and do not provide, tax, accounting or legal advice to any customers. The material contained herein is prepared for informational purposes and is not intended or written to be used, and cannot be used or relied upon for tax, accounting or legal advice. The customer is responsible for consulting the customer's own independent advisor as to the tax, accounting and legal consequences associated with the customer's investments/transactions based on the customer's particular circumstances.
This document and other related documents have not been reviewed by, registered or lodged as a prospectus, information memorandum or profile statement with the Monetary Authority of Singapore nor any regulator in Hong Kong or elsewhere.
This document may not be published, circulated, reproduced or distributed in whole or in part to any other person without the Bank’s prior written consent. This document is not intended for distribution to, publication or use by any person in any jurisdiction outside Singapore, Hong Kong, or such other jurisdiction as the Bank may determine in its absolute discretion, where such distribution, publication or use would be contrary to applicable law or would subject the Bank and its related corporations, connected persons, associated persons and/or affiliates (collectively, “Affiliates”) to any registration, licensing or other requirements within such jurisdiction.
Investments in financial instruments or other products carry significant risk, including the possible loss of the principal amount invested. Financial instruments or other products denominated in a foreign currency are subject to exchange rate fluctuations, which may have an adverse effect on the price or value of an investment in such products. No liability is accepted by the Bank for any loss (whether direct, indirect or consequential) that may arise from any use of the information contained in or derived from this document. Past performance is not a guarantee or indication of future results. Any prices provided in this document (other than those that are identified as being historical) are indicative only and do not represent firm quotes as to either price or size. You should contact your relationship manager directly if you are interested in buying or selling any financial instrument or other product or pursuing any trading strategy, investment strategy or wealth planning structure that may be mentioned in this document.
While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this document have been obtained or derived from sources believed by the Bank and its Affiliates to be reliable, neither the Bank nor its Affiliates has independently verified the accuracy of such source(s). The Bank and its Affiliates and their respective officers, employees, agents and representatives do not make any express or implied representations, warranties or guarantees as to the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of the information, data or prevailing state of affairs that are mentioned in this document and do not accept any liability for any loss or damage whatsoever, direct or indirect, arising from or in connection with the use of the contents of this document.
The Bank and its Affiliates may have issued other reports, analyses, or other documents expressing views different from the contents hereof and all views expressed in all reports, analyses and documents are subject to change without notice. The Bank and its Affiliates reserve the right to act upon or use the contents hereof at any time, including before its publication herein.
The author of this document may have discussed the information contained therein with others within or outside the Bank and the author and/or such other Bank personnel may have already acted on the basis of this information (including communicating the information contained herein to other customers of the Bank). The Bank, its personnel (including those with whom the author may have consulted in the preparation of this document), and other customers of the Bank may be long or short the financial instruments or other products referred to in this document, may have acquired such positions at prices and market conditions that are no longer available, and may have interests different from or adverse to your interests.
The Bank is a licensed bank regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore in Singapore. Bank of Singapore Limited, Hong Kong Branch (incorporated in Singapore with limited liability), is an Authorized Institution as defined in the Banking Ordinance of Hong Kong (Cap 155), regulated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority in Hong Kong and a Registered Institution as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance of Hong Kong (Cap.571) regulated by the Securities and Futures Commission in Hong Kong. The Bank, its employees and discretionary accounts managed by its Singapore Office may have long or short positions or may be otherwise interested in any of the investment products (including derivatives thereof) referred to in this document and may from time to time dispose of any such investment products. The Bank forms part of the OCBC Group (being for this purpose Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Limited and its subsidiaries, related and affiliated companies). OCBC Group, their respective directors and/or employees (collectively “Related Persons”) may have interests in the investment products or the issuers mentioned herein. Such interests include effecting transactions in such investment products, and providing broking, investment banking and other financial services to such issuers. OCBC Group and its Related Persons may also be related to, and receive fees from, providers of such investment products.
The Bank adheres to a group policy (as revised and updated from time to time) that provides how entities in the OCBC Group manage or eliminate any actual or potential conflicts of interest which may impact the impartiality of research reports issued by any research analyst in the OCBC Group.
Past performance is not always indicative of likely or future results. The value of any investment or income may go down as well as up. All investments involve an element of risk, including capital loss. Customers who are interested to invest in such investment products should read the risk disclosures and governing terms and conditions that are set out in the relevant offering documents.
Applicable to clients booked and/or managed in the Dubai International Financial Center (DIFC) only: The information contained herein is exclusively addressed to the recipient. The offering of certain products in this document has not been and will not be registered with the Central Bank of United Arab Emirates or Securities & Commodities Authority in the United Arab Emirates. Any products in this document that are being offered or sold do not constitute a public offering or distribution of securities under the applicable laws and regulations of the United Arab Emirates. This document is not intended for circulation or distribution in or into the UAE, other than to persons in the UAE to whom such circulation or distribution is permitted by, or is exempt from the requirements of, the applicable laws and regulations of the United Arab Emirates. The distribution of the information contained herein by the recipient is prohibited. Where applicable, this document relates to securities which are listed outside of the Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange and the Dubai Financial Market. Bank of Singapore Limited is not authorized to provide investment research regarding securities listed on the exchanges of the United Arab Emirates which are outside of the DIFC.
The analyst(s) who prepared this report certifies that the opinions contained herein accurately and exclusively reflect his or her views about the securities of the Company, and that he or she has taken reasonable care to maintain independence and objectivity in respect of the opinions herein.
The analyst(s) who wrote this report does not hold securities in the Company. The analyst(s) receives compensation based on the overall revenues of Bank of Singapore Limited, and no part of his or her compensation was, is, or will be directly or indirectly related to the inclusion of specific recommendations or views in this report. The reporting line of the analyst(s) is separate from and independent of the business solicitation or marketing departments of Bank of Singapore Limited.
The analyst(s) or his/her associate confirms that he or she does not serve as directors or officers of the Company, and the Company or other third parties have not provided or agreed to provide any compensation or other benefits to the analyst(s) in connection with this report.
An “associate” is defined as (i) the spouse, parent or step-parent, or any minor child (natural or adopted) or minor step-child, of the analyst; (ii) the trustee of a trust of which the analyst, his spouse, parent or step-parent, minor child (natural or adopted) or minor step-child, is a beneficiary or discretionary object; or (iii) another person accustomed or obliged to act in accordance with the directions or instructions of the analyst.
Australia: Bank of Singapore Limited (i) is exempt from the requirement to hold an Australian financial services (AFS) licence under the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) in respect of all financial products or financial services it provides in accordance with ASIC Class Order 03/1102 (as continued in force by ASIC Corporations (Repeal and Transitional) Instrument 2016/396) to any person in Australia who is a wholesale client, and (ii) is regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore under Singaporean laws which differ from Australian laws. Brunei: This document has not been delivered to, licensed or permitted by the Autoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam, the authority as designated under the Brunei Darussalam Securities Markets Order, 2013 and the Banking Order, 2006; nor has it been registered with the Registrar of Companies, Registrar of International Business Companies or the Brunei Darussalam Ministry of Finance. The products mentioned in this document are not registered, licensed or permitted by the Autoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam or by any other government agency or under any law in Brunei Darussalam. Any offers, acceptances, sales and allotments of the products shall be made outside Brunei Darussalam. Hong Kong SAR: Bank of Singapore Limited is an Authorized Institution as defined in the Banking Ordinance of Hong Kong (Cap 155), regulated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority in Hong Kong and a Registered Institution as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance of Hong Kong (Cap. 571), regulated by the Securities and Futures Commission in Hong Kong. Indonesia: The offering of the investment product in reliance of this document is not registered under the Indonesian Capital Market Law and its implementing regulations, and is not intended to constitute a public offering of securities under the Indonesian Capital Market Law and its implementing regulations. According, this investment product may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, within Indonesia or to citizens (wherever they are domiciled or located), entities or residents, in any manner which constitutes a public offering of securities under the Indonesian Capital Market Law and its implementing regulations. Malaysia: Bank of Singapore Limited does not hold any licence, registration or approval to carry on any regulated business in Malaysia (including but not limited to any businesses regulated under the Capital Markets & Services Act 2007 of Malaysia), nor does it hold itself out as carrying on or purport to carry on any such business in Malaysia. Any services provided by Bank of Singapore Limited to residents of Malaysia are provided solely on an offshore basis from outside Malaysia, either as a result of “reverse enquiry” on the part of the Malaysian residents or where Bank of Singapore Limited has been retained outside Malaysia to provide such services. As an integral part of the provision of such services from outside Malaysia, Bank of Singapore Limited may from time to time make available to such residents documents and information making reference to capital markets products (for example, in connection with the provision of fund management or investment advisory services outside of Malaysia). Nothing in such documents or information is intended to be construed as or constitute the making available of, or an offer or invitation to subscribe for or purchase any such capital markets product. Myanmar: The provision of any products and services by Bank of Singapore Limited shall be solely on an offshore basis. You shall ensure that you have and will continue to be fully compliant with all applicable laws in Myanmar when entering into discussion or contracts with Bank of Singapore Limited. Oman: This document does not constitute a public offer of investment, securities or financial services in the Sultanate of Oman, as contemplated by the Commercial Companies Law of Oman (Royal Decree No. 18/2019), Banking Law of Oman (Royal Decree No. 114/2000) or the Capital Market Law of Oman (Royal Decree No. 80/1998) and the Executive Regulations of the Capital Market Law (Ministerial Decision No. 1/2009) or an offer to sell or the solicitation of any offer to buy non-Omani investment products, securities or financial services and products in the Sultanate of Oman. This document is strictly private and confidential. It is being provided to a limited number of sophisticated investors solely to enable them to decide whether or not to make an offer to invest in financial products mentioned in this document, outside of the Sultanate of Oman, upon the terms and subject to the restrictions set out herein and may not be reproduced or used for any other purpose or provided to any person other than the original recipient. Additionally, this document is not intended to lead to the making of any contract within the territory or under the laws of the Sultanate of Oman. The Capital Market Authority of Oman and the Central Bank of Oman take no responsibility for the accuracy of the statements and information contained in this document or for the performance of the financial products mentioned in this document nor shall they have any liability to any person for damage or loss resulting from reliance on any statement or information contained herein Russia: The investment products mentioned in this document have not been registered with or approved by the local regulator of any country and are not publicly distributed in Singapore or elsewhere. This document does not constitute or form part of an offer or invitation to the public in any country to subscribe for the products referred to herein. Saudi Arabia: The Bank has not received authorization or licensing from the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency or any other governmental authority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to carry on banking business within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Bank does not hold itself out as carrying on, and does not carry on banking business. South Korea: The document does not constitute an offer, solicitation or investment advertisement to trade in the investment product referred to in the document. The Philippines: The information contained in this document is not intended to constitute a public offering of securities under the Securities Regulation Code of the Philippines. Dubai International Financial Center (DIFC): Bank of Singapore Limited has a branch registered in the Dubai International Financial Centre ("DIFC") which is regulated by the Dubai Financial Services Authority (“DFSA”). Bank of Singapore Limited (DIFC Branch) is not a financial institution licensed in the United Arab Emirates outside of the DIFC and does not undertake banking or financial activities in the United Arab Emirates nor is it licensed to do so outside of the DIFC. This material is provided for information purposes only and it is general information not specific in any way to any particular investor, investor type, strategy, investment need or other financial circumstance. As such this information is not financial advice or a financial promotion, nor is it intended to influence an investor's decision to invest. It is not to be construed as an offer to buy or sell or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any financial instruments or to participate in any particular trading strategy in any jurisdiction. The material is only intended for persons who fulfill the criteria to be classified as “Professional Clients” as defined under the DFSA rules and should not be reviewed, received, provided to or relied upon by any other person. United Arab Emirates (U.A.E): The information contained herein is exclusively addressed to the recipient. The offering of certain products in this document has not been and will not be registered with the Central Bank of United Arab Emirates or the Securities & Commodities Authority in the United Arab Emirates. Any products in this document that are being offered or sold do not constitute a public offering or distribution of securities under the applicable laws and regulations of the United Arab Emirates. This document is not intended for circulation or distribution in or into the UAE, other than to persons in the UAE to whom such circulation or distribution is permitted by, or is exempt from the requirements of, the applicable laws and regulations of the United Arab Emirates. The distribution of the information contained herein by the recipient is prohibited. Where applicable, this document relates to securities which are listed outside of the Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange and the Dubai Financial Market. The Bank of Singapore Limited is not authorized to provide investment research regarding securities listed on the exchanges of the United Arab Emirates which are outside of the DIFC. United Kingdom: In the United Kingdom, this document is being made available only to the person or the entity to whom it is directed being persons to whom it may lawfully be directed under applicable laws and regulations of the United Kingdom (such persons are hereinafter referred to as ‘relevant persons’). Accordingly, this document is communicated only to relevant persons. Persons who are not relevant persons must not act on or rely on this document or any of its contents. Any investment or investment activity to which this document relates is available only to relevant persons and will be engaged in only with relevant persons. Relevant persons in receipt of this document must not distribute, publish, reproduce, or disclose this document (in whole or in part) to any person who is not a relevant person. United States of America: This product may not be sold or offered within the United States or to U.S. persons.
In Hong Kong, Bank of Singapore Limited is a branch of Bank of Singapore Limited incorporated in Singapore with limited liability.
© 2020 Bank of Singapore Limited. All rights reserved.
Version: July 2020